Chapter-1 : Arjuna Vishada

THE BHAGAVAD-GITA


अर्जुन विषाद योगः

Arjuna Vishada Yoga – The Despondency of Arjuna

CHAPTER 1

Dhrtarashtra’s Query – Sanjaya Defines the Arrays – Arjuna’s Impatience – Arjuna Behold the Venerable Ones – Arjuna’s Conflict – Arjuna’s Fallacy.
Dhratarashtra’s Query – 1

 
धृतराष्ट्र उवाच :-                     

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।                         

मामकाः पांडवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ।। १ 

Dhratarashtra said:
Gathered together at Kurukshetra, the field of religious activities, what, O Sanjaya, did my war-inclined sons and those of Pandu do ? (1)

 
सञ्जय उवाच  :-        

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।        

आचार्यमुपसङ्गम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ।। २ 

Sanjaya said:
Now seeing the Pandava army arrayed properly, the Prince Duryodhana drew near his preceptor Drona and spoke these words: (2)

 
पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।     

व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ।। ३ 

Behold, O Master, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, marshalled by the son of Drupada, your talented disciple. (3)

 
अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।    

युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ।। ४ 

Here are mighty archers, peers in warfare to heroic Arjuna and Bhima, Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, the great chariot-warrior. (4)

 
धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।    

पुरुजित् कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ।। ५ 

Dhrshtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant King of Kasi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best among men. (5)

 
युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।    

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः ।। ६ 

The courageous Yudhamanyu, the brave Uttamauja, Saubhadra and the sons of Draupadi – all being great chariot-warriors. (6)

 
अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।    

नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान् ब्रवीमि ते ।। ७ 

Know you, O the best of the twice-born, all those who are our distinguishes chiefs, the leaders of my army; I name them for your information. (7)

 
भवान् भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिञ्जयः ।    

अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च ।। ८ 

Your venerable self, Bhisma, Karna, Kripa the victorious in fight, Asvatthama, Vikarna, and Saumadatti as well. (8)

 
अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यकतजीविताः ।    

नानाशस्त्रप्रहणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ।। ९ 

And there are yet other heroes well trained in warfare, who, equippes with manifold weapons and missiles, are ready to lay down the lives for my sake. (9)

 
अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।    

पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ।। १० 

Multitudinous is our army marshalled by Bhisma, but meagre is the army marshalled by Bhima. (10)

 
अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।    

भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि ।। ११ 

Now all of you assume positions in your respective divisions and protect Bhisma alone, by all means. (11)

 
तस्य सञ्जनयन् हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।।    

सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ।। १२ 

In order to embolden Duryodhana, Bhisma the mighty grandsire, the oldest of the Kurus, now raised a lion’s roar and blew his conch. (12)

 
ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।    

सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् ।। १३ 

Then suddenly blared forth conchs and kettledrums, tabors and trumpets and cow-horns; and tremendous was that noise. (13)

 
ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यंदने स्थितौ ।    

माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः ।। १४ 

Then, seated as Madhava and Pandava were in their magnificent chariot yoked to white steeds, they gratefully blew their divine conchs. (14)

 
पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनंजयः ।    

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः ।। १५ 

Panchajanys was blown by Hrishikesa, and Devadatta by Dhananjaya. Vrikodara of terrible exploits blew his great conch, Paundra. (15)

 
अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।    

नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ।। १६ 

The King Yudhishthira, the son of Kuntu, blew Anantavijaya; Nakula and Sahadeva blew Sughosha and Manipushpaka. (16)

 
काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।    

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ।। १७ 

And the Ruler of Kasi, the adept archer and Sikhandi, the great chariot-warrior, Dhrshtadyumna and Virata and Satyaki, the invincible. (17)

 
द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।    

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान् दध्मुः पृथक् पृथक् ।। १८ 

O Ruler of the Earth ! Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, and the mighty armed son of Subhadra, all these as well blew their several conchs. (18)

 
स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।    

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन् ।। १९ 

Filling the earth and the sky with reverberation, that tumultous uproar rent the heards of the sons of Dhrtarashtra. (19)

 
अथ व्यवस्थितान्द्रुष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान् कपिध्वजः ।    

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ।। २०    

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते । 

Then, O Ruler of the Earth, seeing Dhrtarashtra’s host being positioned and the fighting about to commence, Pandava, whose ensign badge is Hanuman, lifting his bow spoke the following words to Krishna. (20)

 
अर्जुन उवाच  :-    

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ।। २१    

यावदेतान्निरीक्षेहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान् ।    

कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे ।। २२ 

Arjuna Said :-
Place my chariot, O Achyuta, between the two armies so that I may behold the war-minded that stand here, with whom I must wage this war. (21-22)

 
योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।    

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ।। २३ 

I desire to discern those that throng here to fight, intent on pleasing in battle the evil-minded son of Dhrtarashtra. (23)

 
सञ्जय उवाच  :-    

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।    

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ।। २४    

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।    

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान् सम्वेतान्कुरूनिति ।। २५ 

Sanjya said :-
Thus requested by Gudakesa, Hrishikesa, O Bharata, having placed the best of chariots in between the two armies; (24)
Facing Bhisma and Drona and all the rules of the earth, spoke, “O Partha, behold all the Kings gathered together.” (25)

 
तत्रापश्यत् स्थितान् पार्थः पितृन्नथ पितामहान् ।    

आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातृन्  पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ।। २६    

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि । 

Standing there, Partha, then beheld in both the armies, paternal uncles, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, cousins, sons, grandsons, comrades, fathers-in-law and benefactors. (26)

 
तान् समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ।। २७    

कृपया परयाऽऽविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् । 

He, the son of Kuntu, gazing at those kinsmen posted in positions, spoke thus in sadness, filled as he was with choking compassion. (27)

 
अर्जुन उवाच  :-    

दृष्ट्वेमम् स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ।। २८    

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति । 

Arjuna said :-
Seeing these my kinsmes, collected here prompted by war, my limbs fail me, O Krishna, and my mouth is parched up. (28)

 
वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ।। २९    

गांडीवं स्त्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते । 

My body quivers and hair stands on end. The bow Gandiva slips from my hand and my skin burns all over. (29)

 
न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ।। ३०    

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव । 

I am unable to stand; my mind whirls as it were; and Kesava, I see adverse omens. (30)

 
न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ।। ३१    

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च । 

I do not foresee any good ensuing from the slaughter of kinsmen in battle. O Krishna, I hanker not for victory or empire or pleasures even. (31)

 
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ।। ३२ 

Of what avail to us is kingdom or enjoyment or even life, O Govinda ? (32)

 
येषामर्थे काण्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।    

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ।। ३३ 

Those for whose sake we seek kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures, they stand here in battle, staking life and property. (33)

 
आचार्याः पितरः पुत्राः तथैव च पितामहाः ।    

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा ।। ३४ 

Teachers, fathers, sons as well as gradfathers, maternal uncles, father-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives. (34)

 
एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।    

अपि त्रैलोकराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ।। ३५ 

Though myself slain by them, I would not, O Madhusudana, seek to slay them even for the sake of dominations over the three worlds, how then for the earth ? (35)

 
निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान् नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ।    

पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान् हत्वैतानाततायिनः ।। ३६ 

What delight can we derive, O Janardana, by doing away with these sons of Dhrtarashtra ? Sin only will accrue to us by slaying these desperadoes. (36)

 
तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ।    

स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ।। ३७ 

We should not therefore slay the sons of Dhratarashtra, our kinsmen; for, how can we, O Madhava, killing our own kinsmen, be happy ? (37)

 
यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ।    

कुलक्षकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ।। ३८ 

Although these, with understanding clouded by grees, see no guilt in the extermination of a family, no crime in hostility to friends. (38)

 
कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ।   

कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ।। ३९ 

Why should we not learn to recoil from such a sin, O Janardana, we who see evil in the destruction of a family ? (39)

 
कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।   

धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नम् अधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ।। ४० 

In the decline of a family, its time-honoured usages perish; with the perishing of sacred rites, impiety overtakes the entire family. (40)

 
अधर्माभिभवात् कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ।   

स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसङ्करः ।। ४१ 

With the growth of impiety, O Krishna, the family women become unchaste; and women getting corrupted, O Varshneya, caste admixture ensues. (41)

 
सङ्करो नरकायैव कुल्घ्नानां कुलस्य च ।   

पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ।। ४२ 

Hell is verily the lot of the family and family destroyers through caste admixture; for, their ancestors fall deprived of manes-cakes and libations. (42)

 
दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसङ्करकारकैः ।   

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ।। ४३ 

The everlasting caste-virtues and the family-merits get ruined because of the caste-confusion created by the bad deeds of the family-destroyers. (43)

 
उत्सन्न कुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।   

नरकेऽनियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ।। ४४ 

We have heard, O Janardana, that hell is verily the long lasting abode of the men whose family religious practices have been broken. (44)

 
अहो बत महत् पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ।   

यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ।। ४५ 

Goaded by the greed of the pleasures of a kingdom, we are, alas, bent on perpetrating the great sin of killing our kinsmen. (45)

 
यदि मामप्रतीकाराम् अशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।   

धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युः तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ।। ४६ 

Should the sons of Dhrtarashtra with weapons in hand slay me, unresisting and unarmed in the battle, that would indeed be better for me. (46)

 
सञ्जय उवाच  :-   

एवमुक्त्वाऽर्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।   

विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ।। ४७ 

Sanjaya said :-
So saying, overwhelmed with sorrow in the battle-field, Arjuna sat on the seat of his chariot, abandoning his bow and arrows. (47)

 
इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतसूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां   

योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे अर्जुनविषादयोगो नाम   

प्रथमोऽध्यायः ।। 

In the Upanishad of BHagavad-Gita, the knowledge of Brahman, the Supreme and the Science of Yoga and the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, this is the first discourse designated: The Despondency of Arjuna

One thought on “Chapter-1 : Arjuna Vishada

  1. Respected swamiji

    It is an immense pleasure for me to chant Bhagavath geetha with meaning.How ever I find it difficult to read the slokas properly.Kindly enlighten me to hear the slokas through audio.Namste.

    Chandrasekaran

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